Empezando a entender el género en español

 Andrea Menegotto, 3/11/2014

—¿Se dice «el problema» o «la problema»?
—El problema .
—¿Se dice «el pianista» o «la pianista»?
—Cualquiera de los dos. La pianista es una mujer, el pianista es un hombre.
—¿Se dice «el rato» o «la rata»?
—Cualquiera de los dos, pero son diferentes. Un rato es un momento, una rata es un roedor.

El género es un rasgo gramatical que, en español, tiene dos valores: femenino o masculino. Todos los sustantivos necesitan el rasgo género para formar un grupo nominal y combinarse con el determinante y los otros modificadores. El emisor no puede evitar la presencia del género. Los sustantivos de género femenino solo pueden combinarse con determinantes femeninos y los sustantivos de género masculino solo pueden combinarse con determinantes masculinos.

Hay sustantivos que tienen dos formas diferentes, una para el femenino y otra para el masculino, con el mismo significado general. En este caso, el emisor elige qué género quiere usar para indicar el sexo del referente.

el chico (un niño o un hombre joven)

la chica (una niña o una mujer joven)

Además, hay sustantivos que no tienen marca. El hablante puede usarlos después de un determinante femenino o de uno masculino para indicar el sexo del referente. En este caso, el determinante fija el valor del rasgo género del sustantivo y puede indicar el sexo de la persona de la cual se habla. Si el sustantivo puede usarse con ambos géneros, el emisor tiene que elegir uno de ellos.

el detective (un detective hombre)

la detective (una detective mujer)

110 Respuestas a “Empezando a entender el género en español”

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