Variedades de español en la Argentina: español 2G y español 3G.

En la Argentina en la actualidad pueden identificarse al menos dos variedades distintas de español. Una variedad de español con dos valores del género gramatical (masculino y femenino) al que llamaremos español 2G y una variedad de español con tres valores del género gramatical, al que llamaremos español 3G.

El español 2G fue la variedad extendida en los medios de comunicación hispanohablantes durante el siglo XX. Existen varias formas distintas de nombrarlo: castellano, español, español rioplatense, español americano, español argentino… Cada uno de esos nombres implica un punto de vista y un recorte lingüístico diferente.

El español 3G es una variedad lingüística que en la Argentina comenzó a expandirse a principios del siglo XXI a la que se conoce como lenguaje inclusivo o español no binario. Esos nombres también implican puntos de vista y recortes diferentes.

En las reflexiones que siguen, intentaré mantener el punto de vista de una disciplina científica conocida como Lingüística. No quiero complicar la cuestión innecesariamente, así que lo aclaro ahora: observaré propiedades fonológicas, morfológicas, sintácticas, semánticas, pragmáticas y discursivas de ambas variedades, pero intentaré hacerlo evitando la jerga técnica con la que sufren mis estudiantes de Gramática y Lingüística.

Por supuesto, será imposible evitar que se cuelen en estos comentarios mis puntos de vista y mis experiencias personales. Pero para que puedan discriminarlos discursivamente, les cuento: me asignaron el sexo femenino al nacer y lo mantuve así toda la vida, que ya está más cerca de los 60 años que de los 50. Estudié en el sistema público desde la escuela primaria hasta el doctorado en Lingüística, siempre en la Argentina. Jamás estudié formalmente en el exterior, aunque sí viajé a muchos congresos y expuse mis trabajos en español 2G y en inglés. Nací y me formé en la ciudad de Buenos Aires pero elegí trabajar y vivir en Mar del Plata hace casi 30 años. Hice toda mi carrera profesional en universidades públicas y en el CONICET. Soy una mujer cis género con una carrera profesional, alguna vez me casé con un hombre, tuve hijos, amistades y todo bien hasta que la salud me explotó y descubrí los engaños en los que estaba inmersa. Me divorcié no sin conflicto, mantuve siempre a mis hijos con mis múltiples trabajos docentes, hasta que logré la estabilidad laboral que hoy me permite decir que soy profesora titular de Gramática en la universidad pública e investigadora independiente en Conicet. Ideológicamente soy de izquierda para la gente de derecha y de derecha para la gente de izquierda, pero jamás me consideraría una persona de centro.

Soy la fundadora de este Observatorio Lingüístico, que surge como resultado de la colaboración entre dos instituciones: el INHUS, Instituto de Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales (Conicet-Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata), donde tengo mi lugar de trabajo como investigadora, y SAEL, la Sociedad Argentina de Estudios Lingüísticos, de la que soy vicepresidenta.

¿Por qué les cuento todo esto? Porque a pesar de que voy a intentar hacer esta columna una presentación lingüística, es imposible dejar afuera quién soy y desde dónde escribo. Y me parece honesto que quienes lean estas reflexiones lo sepan desde el principio. Mi sueldo lo paga el Estado argentino, no estoy afiliada a ningún partido ni participo en ningún movimiento político, pero sí participo activamente en múltiples iniciativas colectivas de la disciplina en la que me formé.

Me considero una persona inclusiva que habla una variedad de español 2G y ha llegado al punto de no soportar una de las principales características del español 2G: el uso del masculino genérico. Ahí está mi punto de vista personal del que no puedo desprenderme. Cada día me molesta más el uso del masculino genérico en mi propia variedad lingüística.

¿Por qué será?

¿Qué es el masculino genérico y por qué es un problema?

El masculino genérico es una expresión ambigua, que quiere decir, de forma económica, “el uso del valor masculino del género gramatical con interpretación genérica”. Es decir, que se usa el masculino para referirse a hombre y mujeres, no solo a hombres.

El problema obvio es que el masculino también se usa de manera no genérica para referirse exclusivamente a los hombres.

Es decir, que las formas en masculino son siempre ambiguas: puede utilizarse de manera específica para referirse a hombres, o puede utilizarse de manera inclusiva.

Ése es el principal argumento de quienes se oponen a los movimientos a favor del lenguaje inclusivo o no binario: que el masculino siempre fue inclusivo, porque el masculino genérico siempre incluyó a las mujeres. La gramática y el análisis del discurso han demostrado que eso es una falacia.

Quisiera comenzar demostrando que eso, en realidad, es un argumento tramposo: el masculino puede incluir, pero también puede excluir, porque en realidad, gramaticalmente, el masculino es siempre ambiguo.  

Algunas veces puede desambiguarse sin problemas en el contexto. Por ejemplo, cuando leemos en una mesa electoral Solo podrán votar los ciudadanos que acrediten su identidad con documento válido. En las elecciones de 1928 en la Argentina, por ejemplo, solo podía interpretarse con referencia a los hombres: solo podían votar los ciudadanos que acreditaran su identidad con documento válido: las ciudadanas no podían votar, el voto era un derecho de los hombres, por lo tanto nadie, en 1928, interpretaba esa frase como masculino genérico. Era tan solo masculino específico. 

Alvear emitiendo su voto en 1928. Solo los ciudadanos con documento válido podían votar. Masculino específico.

Ahora, en cambio, como afortunadamente, desde mediados del siglo XX las mujeres podemos votar también, desambiguamos la expresión para interpretarla como “solo podrán votar los ciudadanos y las ciudadanas que acrediten su identidad con documento válido”. Es decir, la interpretamos como un masculino genérico. La misma frase en dos momentos diferentes de la historia del mismo país se interpreta de manera distinta. Pero la frase, sin contexto, es ambigua. Y en muchos contextos, es imposible desambiguarla hasta que es demasiado tarde. 

Carrió emitiendo su voto en 2019. Solo los ciudadanos con documento válido podían votar. Masculino genérico.

Entonces, ¿qué significa la frase «Solo los ciudadanos con documento válido podrán votar?»

Los ciudadanos tiene dos significados posibles, porque el valor masculino del género es semánticamente ambiguo, permite dos interpretaciones:

  • solo los ciudadanos masculinos (específico) o
  • los ciudadanos y las ciudadanas (genérico o «inclusivo»).

El femenino, en cambio, tiene un solo significado: «solo podrán votar las ciudadanas con documento válido» . El femenino no es ambiguo.

¿Cuántas mujeres dejaron de presentarse a un trabajo porque en el aviso se usaba una forma de masculino genérico? En nuestra próxima publicación, hablaremos precisamente de eso…

Continuará…

1.984 Respuestas a “Variedades de español en la Argentina: español 2G y español 3G.”

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